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Irk, Ferenc (2021): Misuse of Power. Perpetrators and Victims. (A Macrocriminological Approach) In: Holé, Katalin - Király, Eszter (Ed. by): Haladás és ellenállás. Erdei Tanár Úr és más szerzők dolgozatai. ELTE Jogi Kari Tudomány 48. Budapest, 291-306.


It results in the misuse of power if a social entity with power (abuser) experiences that certain positive methods do not involve any counter-action or resistance (or only trigger very little counter-action or resistance) with regard to certain persons, principles and objects (victims). The exploitation of persons is a form of misusing power. The forms of exploitation represent as colorful variations as the number and composition of the persons affected by it. The concept of exploitation covers forced labor or slavery, as well as those groups of offenders and victims who are special with regard to gender, age or profession. As for the extension of the phenomenon, it exists on the global, regional, local and personal/individual levels alike. The aggrieved parties belong to several different categories, which justifies the examination of the field for its own sake. Due to this, the mass phenomenon should be investigated into the context of macrovictimology, especially because the millions of exploited people constitute a special group of victims by themselves.


Experts most often focus on economic exploitation when they analyze the different forms of misusing power. The information meant by the umbrella expressions forced labor, slavery, or exploitation have become rather popular and gained ground in the media both in Europe and in Hungary in the past fifteen years. What one can conclude from the high number of case studies, on the one hand, is that there are plenty of anonymous victims in the product chain. On the other hand, it can be stated that victims also victimize many other people. Nowadays neither criminological nor victimological research concentrates on these correlations. People who consume global products should admit that they are also involved in exploitation and play the role of the accomplices of the offenders. Denying and neglecting this fact may lead to drawing a convenient conclusion: we can disclaim the responsibility that we share the benefits from exploitation with the exploiter. 


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NEW BOOK: UNPUNISHABLE SINS II. - The metamorphosis of the exploitation of man and the environment

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Prof. Dr. Ferenc Irk